Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2020
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies||
NOTE 2 — SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Cash and Cash Equivalents
The Company considers all highly liquid investments with maturities of three months or less when purchased, as cash equivalents. Cash equivalents are carried at cost, which approximates fair market value.
Restricted cash represents $0.2 million relating to a revolving 90-day certificate of deposit maintained by the Company as collateral in connection with corporate credit cards and $0.1 million relating to its commercial credit card servicing agreement with Western Alliance Bank. At December 31, 2020 and 2019, the restricted cash balance was $0.3 million and $0.3 million, respectively.
The following table provides a reconciliation of cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash reported in the consolidated balance sheets to the same total reported in the consolidated statements of cash flows (in thousands):
The Company values inventory at the lower of cost or net realizable value, with cost determined using the first-in, first-out method. The carrying value of inventory is evaluated periodically for excess quantities and obsolescence. Management evaluates quantities on hand, physical condition, and technical functionality as these characteristics may be impacted by anticipated customer demand for current products and new product introductions. The allowance is adjusted based on such evaluation, with a corresponding provision included in cost of revenue. Abnormal amounts of idle facility expenses, freight, handling costs and wasted material are recognized as current period charges, and the Company’s allocation of fixed production overhead is based on the normal capacity of its production facilities.
Property, Plant, and Equipment
Property, plant, and equipment is stated at acquisition cost less accumulated depreciation. Maintenance and repairs are expensed as incurred. Upon sale or disposition of assets, any gain or loss is included in the consolidated statements of operations.
The cost of property, plant, and equipment is depreciated using the straight-line method over the following estimated useful lives of the respective assets, except for leasehold improvements, which are depreciated over the lesser of the estimated useful lives of the respective assets or the related lease terms.
Depreciation expense for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019, and 2018 totaled $0.5 million, $1.0 million and $0.9 million, respectively. The Company recognized losses on disposal of internally developed software of $0 million, $0 million and $1.2 million during the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and, 2018, respectively.
Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets
Goodwill is not subject to amortization but is evaluated for impairment annually or whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the asset might be impaired. The Company operates in one reporting segment and reporting unit; therefore, goodwill is tested for impairment at the consolidated level against the fair value of the Company. The fair value of a reporting unit refers to the amount at which the unit as a whole could be bought or sold in a current transaction between willing parties. Quoted market prices in active markets are the best evidence of fair value and are used as the basis for measurement, if available. Management assesses potential impairment on an annual basis and compares the Company’s market capitalization to its carrying amount, including goodwill. A significant decrease in the Company’s stock price could indicate a material impairment of goodwill which, after further analysis, could result in a material charge to operations. Inherent in the Company’s fair value determinations are certain judgments and estimates, including projections of future cash flows, the discount rate reflecting the inherent risk in future cash flows, the interpretation of current economic indicators and market valuations, and strategic plans with regard to operations. A change in these underlying assumptions could cause a change in the results of the tests, which could cause the fair value of the reporting unit to be less than its respective carrying amount.
Costs incurred to acquire and successfully defend patents, and costs incurred to acquire trademarks and trade names are capitalized. Costs related to the internal development of technologies that are ultimately patented are expensed as incurred. Intangible assets, except those determined to have an indefinite life, are amortized using the straight-line method or over management’s best estimate of the pattern of economic benefit over the estimated useful life of the assets. Intangible assets are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of the asset may not be recoverable.
The carrying values of long-lived assets, including intangible assets subject to amortization, are reviewed when indicators of impairment, such as reductions in demand or significant economic slowdowns, are present. Reviews are performed to determine whether carrying value of an asset is impaired based on comparisons to undiscounted expected future cash flows. If this comparison indicates that there is impairment, the impaired asset is written down to fair value, which is typically calculated using discounted expected future cash flows. Impairment is based on the excess of the carrying amount over the fair value of those assets.
Redeemable Preferred Stock
The Company classifies convertible preferred stock that is redeemable at the stockholder’s discretion as mezzanine equity. In a private offering in 2019, the Company issued and sold 69,565 shares of its Series E Convertible Preferred Stock, par value $0.001 per share (“Series E Preferred Stock”) to two stockholders who owned over 60% of the outstanding shares of common stock of the Company for a share price of $57.50 per share and a par value of $0.001 per share. Each share of the Series E Preferred Stock was convertible into 100 shares of BIOLASE common stock upon exercise. All 69,565 shares of Series E Preferred Stock were automatically converted into 6,956,500 shares of common stock upon receipt of the requisite approval at the Company’s 2020 annual meeting of stockholders (the “2020 Annual Meeting”). Upon conversion based on its original terms, the Company recorded the exchange of Series E Preferred Stock of approximately $4.0 million for common stock, with no charge in retained earnings. As of December 31, 2020 and 2019, 0 and 69,565 shares of Series E Preferred Stock were issued and outstanding, respectively. Additional details are discussed further in Note 8 to these consolidated financial statements.
Other Comprehensive (Loss) Income
Other comprehensive (loss) income encompasses the change in equity from transactions and other events and circumstances from non-owner sources and is included as a component of stockholders’ equity but is excluded from net (loss) income. Accumulated other comprehensive (loss) income is comprised of foreign currency translation adjustments.
Foreign Currency Translation and Transactions
Transactions of the Company’s German, Spanish, Australian, and Indian subsidiaries are denominated in their local currencies which have been determined to be their functional currencies. The results of operations and cash flows are translated at average exchange rates during the period, and assets and liabilities are translated at end-of-period exchange rates. Translation gains or losses are shown as a component of accumulated other comprehensive (loss) income in stockholders’ equity. Income and losses resulting from foreign currency transactions which are denominated in a currency other than the entity’s functional currency, are included in the consolidated statements of operations.
Revenue for sales of products and services is derived from contracts with customers. The products and services promised in customer contracts include delivery of laser systems, imaging systems, and consumables as well as certain ancillary services such as training and extended warranties. Contracts with each customer generally state the terms of the sale, including the description, quantity and price of each product or service. Payment terms are stated in the contract and vary according to the arrangement. Because the customer typically agrees to a stated rate and price in the contract that does not vary over the life of the contract, the Company’s contracts do not contain variable consideration. The Company establishes a provision for estimated warranty expense.
At contract inception, the Company assesses the products and services promised in its contracts with customers. The Company then identifies performance obligations to transfer distinct products or services to the customers. In order to identify performance obligations, the Company considers all of the products or services promised in contracts regardless of whether they are explicitly stated or are implied by customary business practices.
Revenue from products and services transferred to customers at a single point in time accounted for 81%, 81%, and 86% of net revenue for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019, and 2018, respectively. The majority of the Company’s revenue recognized at a point in time is for the sale laser systems, imaging systems, and consumables. Revenue from these contracts is recognized when the customer is able to direct the use of and obtain substantially all of the benefits from the product which generally coincides with title transfer during the shipping process.
Revenue from services transferred to customers over time accounted for 19%, 19%, and 14% of net revenue for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019, and 2018, respectively. The majority of our revenue that is recognized over time relates to product training and extended warranties. Deferred revenue attributable to undelivered elements, which primarily consists of product training, totaled $0.7 million and $0.6 million as of December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively.
Transaction Price Allocation
The transaction price for a contract is allocated to each distinct performance obligation and recognized as revenue when, or as, each performance obligation is satisfied. For contracts with multiple performance obligations, the Company allocates the contract’s transaction price to each performance obligation using the best estimate of the standalone selling price of each distinct good or service in a contract. The primary method used to estimate standalone selling price is the observable price when the good or service is sold separately in similar circumstances and to similar customers.
Revenue is recorded for extended warranties over time as the customer benefits from the warranty coverage. This revenue will be recognized equally throughout the contract period as the customer receives benefits from the Company's promise to provide such services. Revenue is recorded for product training as the customer attends a training program or upon the expiration of the obligation, which is generally after nine months.
The Company also has contracts that include both the product sales and product training as performance obligations. In those cases, the Company records revenue for product sales at the point in time when the product has been shipped. The customer obtains control of the product when it is shipped, as all shipments are made FOB shipping point, and after the customer selects its shipping method and pays all shipping costs and insurance. The Company has concluded that control is transferred to the customer upon shipment.
Accounts receivable are stated at estimated net realizable value. The allowance for doubtful accounts is based on an analysis of customer accounts and the Company’s historical experience with accounts receivable write-offs.
The Company performs its obligations under a contract with a customer by transferring products and/or services in exchange for consideration from the customer. The Company typically invoices its customers as soon as control of an asset is transferred and a receivable for the Company is established. The Company, however, recognizes a contract liability when a customer prepays for goods and/or services and the Company has not transferred control of the goods and/or services. The opening and closing balances of the Company’s contract liabilities are as follows (in thousands):
The balance of contract assets was immaterial as the Company did not have a significant amount of uninvoiced receivables in the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019.
The amount of revenue recognized during the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 that was included in the opening contract liability balance related to undelivered elements was $0.3 million and $0.5 million, respectively. The amounts related to extended warranty contracts was $2.0 million and $2.1 million, for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively. There were no deferred royalties for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively.
Disaggregation of Revenue
The Company disaggregates revenue from contracts with customers into geographical regions and by the timing of when goods and services are transferred. The Company determined that disaggregating revenue into these categories depicts how the nature, amount, timing and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows are affected by regional economic factors.
The Company’s revenues related to the following geographic areas were as follows (in thousands):
Information regarding revenues disaggregated by the timing of when goods and services are transferred is as follows (in thousands):
The Company’s sales by end market is as follows (in thousands):
Shipping and Handling Costs and Revenues
Shipping and freight costs are treated as fulfillment costs. For shipments to end-customers, the customer bears the shipping and freight costs and has control of the product upon shipment. For shipments to distributors, the distributor bears the shipping and freight costs, including insurance, tariffs and other import/export costs.
Provision for Warranty Expense
The Company provides warranties against defects in materials and workmanship of its laser systems for specified periods of time. For the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, laser systems sold were covered by the warranty for a period of up to two years from the date of sale by the Company or the distributor to the end-user. For Waterlase systems sold domestically and purchased in 2017 or later, the Company decreased the warranty period from two years to one year. Laser systems sold internationally are covered by the warranty for a period of up to 28 months from the date of sale to the international distributor. Estimated warranty expenses are recorded as an accrued liability with a corresponding provision to cost of revenue. This estimate is recognized concurrent with the recognition of revenue on the sale to the distributor or end-user. Warranty expenses expected to be incurred after one year from the time of sale to the distributor are classified as a long-term warranty accrual. The Company’s overall accrual is based on its historical experience and management’s expectation of future conditions, taking into consideration the location and type of customer and the type of laser, which directly correlate to the materials and components under warranty, the duration of the warranty period, and the logistical costs to service the warranty. Additional factors that may impact the Company’s warranty accrual include changes in the quality of materials, leadership and training of the production and services departments, knowledge of the lasers and workmanship, training of customers, and adherence to the warranty policies. Additionally, an increase in warranty claims or in the costs associated with servicing those claims would likely result in an increase in the accrual and a decrease in gross profit. All imaging products are initially covered by the manufacturer’s warranties. However, the Company offers extended warranties on certain imaging products.
Changes in the initial product warranty accrual and the expenses incurred under the Company’s initial and extended warranties are included within accrued liabilities and were as follows (in thousands):
Advertising costs are expensed as incurred and totaled $0.6 million, $0.5 million and $0.6 million for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019, and 2018, respectively.
Engineering and Development
Engineering and development expenses are generally expensed as incurred and consist of engineering personnel salaries and benefits, prototype supplies, contract services, and consulting fees related to product development.
During the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019, and 2018, the Company recognized compensation cost related to stock options of $3.4 million, $2.7 million, and $2.8 million, respectively, based on the grant-date fair value. In 2020, $0.9 million of the total stock compensation cost related to performance-based awards was recognized as a liability. The following table summarizes the income statement classification of compensation expense associated with share-based payments (in thousands):
As of December 31, 2020 and 2019, the Company had $1.0 million and $2.7 million, respectively, of total unrecognized compensation cost, net of estimated forfeitures, related to unvested share-based compensation arrangements granted under its existing plans. The $1.0 million in cost is expected to be recognized over a weighted-average period of 1 year as of December 31, 2020.
Stock-based compensation expense is estimated at the grant date of the award, is based on the fair value of the award and is recognized ratably over the requisite service period of the award. For restricted stock units (“RSUs”) the Company estimates the fair value of the award based on the number of awards and the fair value of BIOLASE common stock on the grant date, and applies an estimated forfeiture rate. For stock options, the Company estimates the fair value of the option award using the Black-Scholes option pricing model. This option-pricing model requires the Company to make several assumptions regarding the key variables used to calculate the fair value of its stock options. The risk-free interest rate used is based on the U.S. Treasury yield curve in effect for the expected lives of the options at their grant dates. Since July 1, 2005, the Company has used a dividend yield of zero, as it does not intend to pay cash dividends on its common stock in the foreseeable future. The most critical assumptions used in calculating the fair value of stock options is the expected life of the option and the expected volatility of BIOLASE common stock. The expected life is calculated in accordance with the simplified method, whereby for service-based awards the expected life is calculated as a midpoint between the vesting date and expiration date. The Company uses the simplified method, as there is not a sufficient history of share option exercises. For performance-based awards, the expected life equals the life of the award. Management believes that the historic volatility of the BIOLASE common stock is a reliable indicator of future volatility, and accordingly, a stock volatility factor based on the historical volatility of the BIOLASE common stock over a lookback period of the expected life is used in approximating the estimated volatility of new stock options. Compensation expense is recognized using the straight-line method for all service-based employee awards and graded amortization for all performance-based awards. Compensation expense is recognized only for those options expected to vest, with forfeitures estimated at the date of grant based on historical experience and future expectations. Forfeitures are estimated at the time of the grant and revised in subsequent periods as actual forfeitures differ from those estimates. The Company applied a forfeiture rate of 10.87% and 49.43% to awards granted to executives and employees, respectively, during the year ended December 31, 2020. The Company’s forfeiture rates applied to awards granted to executives and employees during the year ended December 31, 2019 were 10.3% and 48.73% and during the year ended December 31, 2018, were 7.28% and 45.31%, respectively.
The stock option fair values were estimated using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model with the following weighted-average assumptions:
Based upon the Company’s operating losses during 2020, 2019, and 2018 and the available evidence, management has determined that it is more likely than not that the deferred tax assets as of December 31, 2020 will not be realized in the near term. Consequently, we have established a valuation allowance against our net deferred tax asset totaling $56.0 million and $53.2 million as of December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively. In this determination, we considered factors such as our earnings history, future projected earnings, and tax planning strategies. If sufficient evidence of our ability to generate sufficient future taxable income tax benefits becomes apparent, we may reduce our valuation allowance, resulting in tax benefits in our statement of operations and in additional paid-in-capital. Management evaluates the potential realization of our deferred tax assets and assesses the need for reducing the valuation allowance periodically.
Net Loss Per Share — Basic and Diluted
Basic net income (loss) per share is computed by dividing income (loss) available to common stockholders by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding for the period. In computing diluted net income (loss) per share, the weighted average number of shares outstanding is adjusted to reflect the effect of potentially dilutive securities. Income is adjusted for any deemed dividends to preferred stockholders to compute income available to common stockholders.
Outstanding stock options, restricted stock units and warrants to purchase approximately 61,122,000, 6,922,000, and 5,862,000 shares were not included in the calculation of diluted loss per share amounts for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019, and 2018, respectively, as their effect would have been anti-dilutive. Also excluded in the calculation of diluted loss per share amount for the year ended December 31, 2020, are the 2,205,000 shares of BIOLASE common stock that will be issued upon conversion of the 882 shares of Series F Convertible Preferred Stock, par value $0.001 per share (“Series F Preferred Stock”), discussed further in Note 8, as their effect would have been anti-dilutive.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
Changes to GAAP are established by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) in the form of accounting standards updates (“ASUs”) to the FASB’s Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”).
The Company considers the applicability and impact of all ASUs. ASUs not listed below were assessed and determined not to be applicable or are expected to have minimal impact on the Company’s consolidated financial position and results of operations.
Accounting Standards Not Yet Adopted
In December 2019, the FASB issued ASU No. 2019-12 Income Taxes (Topic 740)—Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes, to remove certain exceptions and improve consistency of application, including, among other things, requiring that an entity reflect the effect of an enacted change in tax laws or rates in the annual effective tax rate computation in the interim period that includes the enactment date. The amendments in this update will be effective beginning with fiscal year 2021, with early adoption permitted. Most amendments within the standard are required to be applied on a prospective basis, while certain amendments must be applied on a retrospective or modified retrospective basis. The adoption of the amendments in this update is not expected to have a material impact on our consolidated financial position and results of operations.
In August 2020, the FASB issued ASU 2020-06, “Debt – Debt with Conversion and Other Options (Subtopic 470-20) and Derivatives and Hedging – Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity (Subtopic 815-40)”. This ASU reduces the number of accounting models for convertible debt instruments and convertible preferred stock and amends the guidance for the derivatives scope exception for contracts in an entity’s own equity to reduce form-over-substance-based accounting conclusions. In addition, this ASU improves and amends the related earnings per share guidance. This standard is effective for the Company beginning on January 1, 2022, with early adoption permitted only in the first quarter of 2021. Adoption is either a modified retrospective method or a fully retrospective method of transition. The Company is currently assessing the impact the new guidance will have on its consolidated financial statements.
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13, Financial Instruments—Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments. The standard’s main goal is to improve financial reporting by requiring earlier recognition of credit losses on financing receivables and other financial assets in scope and to replace the incurred loss impairment methodology under current GAAP with a methodology that reflects expected credit losses and requires consideration of a broader range of reasonable and supportable information to inform credit loss estimates. The Company will be required to use a forward-looking expected credit loss model for accounts receivables, loans, and other financial instruments. Credit losses relating to available-for-sale debt securities will also be recorded through an allowance for credit losses rather than as a reduction in the amortized cost basis of the securities. The standard will be effective for the Company beginning January 1, 2023, with early adoption permitted beginning January 1, 2019. The Company is currently assessing the impact that adopting this new accounting standard will have on its consolidated financial statements.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef