Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2015
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies||
NOTE 2 — SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Cash and Cash Equivalents
The Company considers all highly liquid investments with maturities of three months or less when purchased, as cash equivalents. Cash equivalents are carried at cost, which approximates fair market value.
Restricted cash represents a revolving 90-day certificate of deposit maintained by the Company as collateral in connection with corporate credit cards. At December 31, 2015, the restricted cash balance was $200,000.
Trade accounts receivable are recorded at the invoiced amount and do not bear interest. The allowance for doubtful accounts is the Company’s best estimate of the amount of probable credit losses in its existing accounts receivable. The Company evaluates its allowance for doubtful accounts based upon its knowledge of customers and their compliance with credit terms. The evaluation process includes a review of customers’ accounts on a regular basis which incorporates input from sales, service, and finance personnel. The review process evaluates all account balances with amounts outstanding more than 90 days from the due date and other specific amounts for which information obtained indicates that the balance may be uncollectible. The allowance for doubtful accounts is adjusted based on such evaluation, with a corresponding provision included in general and administrative expenses. Account balances are charged off against the allowance when it is probable the receivable will not be recovered. The Company does not have any off-balance-sheet credit exposure related to its customers.
The Company values inventory at the lower of cost or market, with cost determined using the first-in, first-out method. The carrying value of inventory is evaluated periodically for excess quantities and obsolescence. Management evaluates quantities on hand, physical condition, and technical functionality as these characteristics may be impacted by anticipated customer demand for current products and new product introductions. The allowance is adjusted based on such evaluation, with a corresponding provision included in cost of revenue. Abnormal amounts of idle facility expenses, freight, handling costs and wasted material are recognized as current period charges and the Company’s allocation of fixed production overhead is based on the normal capacity of its production facilities.
Property, Plant, and Equipment
Property, plant, and equipment is stated at acquisition cost less accumulated depreciation. Maintenance and repairs are expensed as incurred. Upon sale or disposition of assets, any gain or loss is included in the consolidated statements of operations.
The cost of property, plant, and equipment is depreciated using the straight-line method over the following estimated useful lives of the respective assets, except for leasehold improvements, which are depreciated over the lesser of the estimated useful lives of the respective assets or the related lease terms.
Depreciation expense for the years ended December 31, 2015, 2014, and 2013 totaled approximately $817,000, $627,000, and $484,000, respectively.
Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets
Goodwill is not subject to amortization but are evaluated for impairment annually or whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the asset might be impaired. The Company operates in one reporting segment and has one operating unit; therefore goodwill is tested for impairment at the consolidated level against the fair value of the Company. The fair value of a reporting unit refers to the amount at which the unit as a whole could be bought or sold in a current transaction between willing parties. Quoted market prices in active markets are the best evidence of fair value and are used as the basis for measurement, if available. Management assesses potential impairment on an annual basis on June 30th and compares the Company’s market capitalization to its carrying amount, including goodwill. A significant decrease in the Company’s stock price could indicate a material impairment of goodwill which, after further analysis, could result in a material charge to operations. If goodwill is considered impaired, the impairment loss to be recognized is measured by the amount by which the carrying amount of the goodwill exceeds the implied fair value of that goodwill. Inherent in the Company’s fair value determinations are certain judgments and estimates, including projections of future cash flows, the discount rate reflecting the inherent risk in future cash flows, the interpretation of current economic indicators and market valuations, and strategic plans with regard to operations. A change in these underlying assumptions could cause a change in the results of the tests, which could cause the fair value of the reporting unit to be less than its respective carrying amount.
Costs incurred to acquire and successfully defend patents, and costs incurred to acquire trademarks and trade names are capitalized. Costs related to the internal development of technologies that are ultimately patented are expensed as incurred. Intangible assets, except those determined to have an indefinite life, are amortized using the straight-line method or over management’s best estimate of the pattern of economic benefit over the estimated useful life of the assets. Intangible assets are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of the asset may not be recoverable.
The carrying values of long-lived assets, including intangible assets subject to amortization, are reviewed when indicators of impairment, such as reductions in demand or significant economic slowdowns, are present. Reviews are performed to determine whether carrying value of an asset is impaired based on comparisons to undiscounted expected future cash flows. If this comparison indicates that there is impairment, the impaired asset is written down to fair value, which is typically calculated using discounted expected future cash flows. Impairment is based on the excess of the carrying amount over the fair value of those assets.
Other Comprehensive (Loss) Income
Other comprehensive (loss) income encompasses the change in equity from transactions and other events and circumstances from non-owner sources and is included as a component of stockholders’ equity but is excluded from net (loss) income. Accumulated other comprehensive gain (loss) is comprised of foreign currency translation adjustments.
Foreign Currency Translation and Transactions
Transactions of the Company’s German, Spanish, Australian, and Indian subsidiaries are denominated in their local currencies. The results of operations and cash flows are translated at average exchange rates during the period, and assets and liabilities are translated at end-of-period exchange rates. Translation gains or losses are shown as a component of accumulated other comprehensive gain (loss) in stockholders’ equity. Gains and losses resulting from foreign currency transactions, which are denominated in a currency other than the entity’s functional currency, are included in the consolidated statements of operations.
The Company’s products are sold in North America directly to customers through its field sales force and through non-exclusive distributors. The Company sells its products internationally through exclusive and non-exclusive distributors as well as directly to customers in certain countries. Sales are recorded upon shipment from the Company’s facility and payment of its invoices is generally due within 90 days or less. Internationally, the Company primarily sells products through independent distributors. Revenue is recorded based on four basic criteria that must be met before revenue can be recognized: (1) persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists; (2) delivery has occurred and title and the risks and rewards of ownership have been transferred to the customer or services have been rendered; (3) the price is fixed or determinable; and (4) collectability is reasonably assured. Revenue is recorded for all sales upon shipment assuming all other revenue recognition criteria are met.
Sales of the Company’s laser systems include separate deliverables consisting of the product, disposables used with the laser systems, installation, and training. For sale of deliverables that are part of a multiple-element arrangement, the Company applies a method which approximates the relative selling price method, which requires that arrangement consideration be allocated at the inception of an arrangement to all deliverables using the relative selling price method. This requires us to use estimated selling prices of each of the deliverables in the total arrangement. The sum of those prices is then compared to the arrangement, and any difference is applied to the separate deliverable ratably. This method also establishes a selling price hierarchy for determining the selling price of a deliverable, which includes: (i) vendor-specific objective evidence (“VSOE”), if available, (ii) third-party evidence if VSOE is not available, and (iii) estimated selling price if neither VSOE nor third-party evidence is available. VSOE is determined based on the value we sell the undelivered element to a customer as a stand-alone product. Revenue attributable to the undelivered elements is included in deferred revenue when the product is shipped and is recognized when the related service is performed. Disposables not shipped at time of sale and installation services are typically shipped or installed within 30 days. Training is included in deferred revenue when the product is shipped and is recognized when the related service is performed or upon the appropriate expiration of time offered under the agreement. Deferred revenue attributable to undelivered elements, which primarily consists of training, totaled approximately $1.6 million and $952,000 as of December 31, 2015 and 2014, respectively.
Key judgments of the Company’s revenue recognition include the collectability of payment from the customer, the satisfaction of all elements of the arrangement having been delivered, and that no additional customer credits and discounts are needed. The Company evaluates the customer’s credit worthiness prior to the shipment of the product. Based on the assessment of the credit information available, the Company may determine the credit risk is higher than normally acceptable, and will either decline the purchase or defer the revenue until payment is reasonably assured. Future obligations required at the time of sale may also cause the Company to defer the revenue until the obligation is satisfied.
Although all sales are final, the Company accepts returns of products in certain, limited circumstances and records a provision for sales returns based on historical experience concurrent with the recognition of revenue. The sales returns allowance is recorded as a reduction of accounts receivable and revenue. As of December 31, 2015 and 2014, $210,000 and $110,000, respectively, was recorded as a reduction of accounts receivable for sales returns.
Extended warranty contracts, which are sold to laser and certain imaging customers, are recorded as revenue on a straight-line basis over the period of the contracts, which is typically one year. Included in deferred revenue for each of the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2014, was approximately $1.4 million and $1.5 million, respectively, for extended warranty contracts.
For sales transactions involving used laser trade-ins, the Company records the purchased trade-ins as inventory at the fair value of the asset surrendered with the offset to accounts receivable. In determining the estimated fair value of used laser trade-ins, the Company makes an assessment of usable parts and key components and considers the ultimate resale value of the certified pre-owned (or “CPO”) laser with applicable margins. The Company sells these CPO laser trade-ins as refurbished lasers. Trade-in rights are not established or negotiated with customers during the initial sales transaction of the original lasers. Trade-in rights are promotional events used at management’s discretion to encourage existing laser customers to purchase new lasers by offering perceived discounts in exchange for trade-ins of original lasers. A customer is not required to trade in a laser nor is the Company required to accept a trade-in. However, the promotional value offered in exchange for the trade-in laser is not offered without a laser trade-in. The transaction is treated as a monetary transaction as each sale transaction involving a customer trade-in includes significant boot of greater than 25% of the fair value of the exchange. As a monetary transaction, the sale is recognized following the Company’s laser system revenue recognition policy. There have been no sales transactions in which the cash consideration was less than 25% of the total transaction value.
The Company recognizes revenue for royalties under licensing agreements for its patented technology when the product using our technology is sold. The Company estimates and recognizes the amount earned based on historical performance and current knowledge about the business operations of its licensees. The Company’s estimates have been consistent with amounts historically reported by the licensees. Licensing revenue related to exclusive licensing arrangements is recognized concurrent with the related exclusivity period.
From time to time, the Company may offer sales incentives and promotions on its products. The cost of sales incentives are recorded at the date at which the related revenue is recognized as a reduction in revenue, an increase in cost of goods sold or a selling expense, as applicable, or later, in the case of incentives offered after the initial sale has occurred.
Provision for Warranty Expense
The Company provides warranties against defects in materials and workmanship of its laser systems for specified periods of time. For the years ended December 31, 2015, 2014, and 2013 laser systems sold domestically were covered by the warranty for a period of up to two years from the date of sale by the Company or the distributor to the end-user. Laser systems sold internationally were covered by the warranty for a period of up to 28 months from the date of sale to the international distributor. Estimated warranty expenses are recorded as an accrued liability with a corresponding provision to cost of revenue. This estimate is recognized concurrent with the recognition of revenue on the sale to the distributor or end-user. Warranty expenses expected to be incurred after one year from the time of sale to the distributor are classified as a long-term warranty accrual. The Company’s overall accrual is based on its historical experience and management’s expectation of future conditions, taking into consideration the location and type of customer and the type of laser, which directly correlate to the materials and components under warranty, the duration of the warranty period, and the logistical costs to service the warranty. Additional factors that may impact the Company’s warranty accrual include changes in the quality of materials, leadership and training of the production and services departments, knowledge of the lasers and workmanship, training of customers, and adherence to the warranty policies. Additionally, an increase in warranty claims or in the costs associated with servicing those claims would likely result in an increase in the accrual and a decrease in gross profit. The Company offers extended warranties on certain imaging products. However, all imaging products are initially covered by the manufacturer’s warranties.
Changes in the initial product warranty accrual and the expenses incurred under the Company’s initial and extended warranties for the years ended December 31 are included within accrued liabilities on the Consolidated Balance Sheets and were as follows (in thousands):
Shipping and Handling Costs and Revenues
Shipping and handling costs are expensed as incurred and are recorded as a component of cost of revenue. Charges to customers for shipping and handling are included as a component of revenue.
Advertising costs are expensed as incurred and totaled approximately $929,000, $543,000, and $1.5 million for the years ended December 31, 2015, 2014, and 2013, respectively.
Engineering and Development
Engineering and development expenses are generally expensed as incurred and consist of engineering personnel salaries and benefits, prototype supplies, contract services, and consulting fees related to product development.
During the years ended December 31, 2015, 2014, and 2013, the Company recognized compensation cost related to stock options of $3.4 million, $1.2 million, and $1.6 million, respectively, based on the grant-date fair value. The net impact to earnings for the years ended December 31, 2015, 2014, and 2013, was $(0.06), $(0.03), and $(0.05) per diluted share, respectively. The following table summarizes the income statement classification of compensation expense associated with share-based payments (in thousands):
As of December 31, 2015 and 2014, the Company had $4.4 million and $1.4 million, respectively, of total unrecognized compensation cost, net of estimated forfeitures, related to unvested share-based compensation arrangements granted under its existing plans. The cost is expected to be recognized over a weighted-average period of 2.9 years as of December 31, 2015.
The Company uses the Black-Scholes option valuation model for estimating the fair value of options. This option-pricing model requires the Company to make several assumptions regarding the key variables used to calculate the fair value of its stock options. The risk-free interest rate used is based on the U.S. Treasury yield curve in effect for the expected lives of the options at their dates of grant. Since July 1, 2005, the Company has used a dividend yield of zero as it does not intend to pay cash dividends on its common stock in the foreseeable future. The most critical assumptions used in calculating the fair value of stock options is the expected life of the option and the expected volatility of BIOLASE common stock. The expected life is calculated in accordance with the simplified method, whereby for service-based awards the expected life is calculated as a midpoint between the vest and expiry period. The Company uses the simplified method as there is not a sufficient history of share option exercises. For performance-based awards the expected life equals the life of the award. Management believes that the historic volatility of BIOLASE common stock is a reliable indicator of future volatility, and accordingly, a stock volatility factor based on the historical volatility of BIOLASE common stock over a lookback period of the expected life is used in approximating the estimated volatility of new stock options. Compensation expense is recognized using the straight-line method for all service-based employee awards and graded amortization for all performance-based awards. Compensation expense is recognized only for those options expected to vest, with forfeitures estimated at the date of grant based on historical experience and future expectations. Forfeitures are estimated at the time of the grant and revised in subsequent periods as actual forfeitures differ from those estimates. BIOLASE applied a forfeiture rate of 5.28% and 33.85% to awards granted to executives and employees, respectively, during the year ended December 31, 2015.
The stock option fair values were estimated using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model with the following assumptions:
Commencing January 1, 2013, certain of the Company’s product sales have been subject to the medical device excise tax. The Company has included such taxes separately as a component of operating expense. Effective beginning 2016, the excise tax imposed on the sale of medical devices has been suspended for the calendar years 2016 and 2017.
Differences between accounting for income taxes for financial statement purposes and accounting for tax return purposes are stated as deferred tax assets or deferred tax liabilities in the accompanying consolidated financial statements. The provision for income taxes represents the tax payable for the period and the change during the period in deferred tax assets and liabilities. The Company establishes a valuation allowance when it is more likely than not that the deferred tax assets will not be realized.
On January 1, 2007, the Company adopted the interpretations issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) which establish a single model to address accounting for uncertain tax positions. The interpretations clarify the accounting for income taxes by prescribing a minimum recognition threshold a tax position is required to meet before being recognized in the financial statements and also provides guidance on de-recognition, measurement, classification, interest and penalties, accounting in interim periods, disclosure, and transition.
The income tax provisions for the years ended December 31, 2015, 2014, and 2013 were calculated using the discrete year-to-date method. See Note 6 – Income Taxes for additional disclosures related to the Company’s income tax.
Net Loss Per Share — Basic and Diluted
Basic net income (loss) per share is computed by dividing income (loss) available to common stockholders by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding for the period. In computing diluted net income (loss) per share, the weighted average number of shares outstanding is adjusted to reflect the effect of potentially dilutive securities.
Outstanding stock options and warrants to purchase approximately 14,587,000, 13,606,000, and 6,039,000 shares were not included in the calculation of diluted loss per share amounts for the years ended December 31, 2015, 2014, and 2013, respectively, as their effect would have been anti-dilutive.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
Changes to U.S. GAAP are established by the FASB in the form of accounting standards updates (“ASU’s”) to the FASB’s Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”).
The Company considers the applicability and impact of all ASU’s. ASU’s not listed below were assessed and determined not to be applicable or are expected to have minimal impact on the Company’s consolidated financial position and results of operations.
Accounting Standards Not Yet Adopted
In May 2014, the FASB issued ASU No. 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (ASU 2014-09), which supersedes nearly all existing revenue recognition guidance under U.S. GAAP. The core principle of ASU 2014-09 is to recognize revenues when promised goods or services are transferred to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which an entity expects to be entitled for those goods or services. ASU 2014-09 defines a five-step process to achieve this core principle, and, in doing so, more judgment and estimates may be required within the revenue recognition process than are required under existing U.S. GAAP.
The standard is effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2017, and interim periods therein, using either of the following transition methods: (i) a full retrospective approach reflecting the application of the standard in each prior reporting period with the option to elect certain practical expedients, or (ii) a retrospective approach with the cumulative effect of initially adopting ASU 2014-09 recognized at the date of adoption (which includes additional footnote disclosures). The Company is currently evaluating the impact of the pending adoption of ASU 2014-09 on its consolidated financial statements and has not yet determined the method by which it will adopt the standard during the year ending December 31, 2018.
In August 2014, the FASB issued ASU No. 2014-15, Disclosure of Uncertainties About an Entity’s Ability to Continue as a Going Concern. The standard requires management to perform interim and annual assessments of an entity’s ability to continue as a going concern within one year of the date the financial statements are issued and provides guidance on determining when and how to disclose going concern uncertainties in the financial statements. Certain disclosures will be required if conditions give rise to substantial doubt about an entity’s ability to continue as a going concern. ASU 2014-15 applies to all entities and is effective for annual and interim reporting periods ending after December 15, 2016, with early adoption permitted. The Company does not expect that the adoption of this standard will have a material effect on its consolidated financial statements.
In July 2015, the FASB issued ASU No. 2015-11, Simplifying the Measurement of Inventory (“ASU 2015-11”), as part of its simplification initiative. The standard requires inventory within the scope of ASU 2015-11 to be measured using the lower of cost and net realizable value. The changes apply to all types of inventory, except those measured using the-last-in-first-out method or the retail inventory method. ASU 2015-11 applies to all entities and is effective for fiscal years, and for interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2016, with early adoption permitted. The Company does not expect that the adoption of this standard will have a material effect on its financial statements.
In February 2016, FASB issued ASU 2015-17, Leases. The new standard establishes a right-of-use (ROU) model that requires a lessee to record a ROU asset and a lease liability on the balance sheet for all leases with terms longer than 12 months. Leases will be classified as either finance or operating, with classification affecting the pattern of expense recognition in the income statement. The new standard is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within those fiscal years. A modified retrospective transition approach is required for lessees for capital and operating leases existing at, or entered into after, the beginning of the earliest comparative period presented in the financial statements, with certain practical expedients available. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of our pending adoption of the new standard on our consolidated financial statements.
In November 2015, FASB issued ASU 2015-17, Income Taxes (Topic 740). Current GAAP requires an entity to separate deferred income tax liabilities and assets into current and noncurrent amounts in a classified statement of financial position. To simplify the presentation of deferred income taxes, the amendments in this ASU require that deferred tax liabilities and assets be classified as noncurrent in a classified statement of financial position. The amendments in this ASU apply to all entities that present a classified statement of financial position. The new standard is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2016, including interim periods within those fiscal years with early adoption permitted. The Company will follow the guidance for fiscal year 2017.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/presentationRef