|9 Months Ended|
Sep. 30, 2013
NOTE 12—INCOME TAXES
The Company accounts for income taxes under the asset and liability method, whereby deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized in income in the period that includes the enactment date. Management evaluates the need to establish a valuation allowance for deferred tax assets based upon the amount of existing temporary differences, the period in which they are expected to be recovered, and expected levels of taxable income. A valuation allowance to reduce deferred tax assets is established when it is “more likely than not” that some or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. Management has determined that a full valuation allowance against the Company’s net deferred tax assets is appropriate.
As of September 30, 2013, the Company had net operating loss (“NOL”) carryforwards for federal and state purposes of approximately $83.7 million and $59.5 million, respectively, which begin to expire in 2013. The utilization of NOL and credit carryforwards may be limited under the provisions of the Internal Revenue Code (“IRC”) Section 382 and similar state provisions. IRC Section 382 generally imposes an annual limitation on the amount of NOL carryforwards that may be used to offset taxable income where a corporation has undergone significant changes in stock ownership. During the year ended December 31, 2006, the Company completed an analysis to determine the potential applicability of any annual limitations imposed by IRC Section 382. Based on the analysis, management determined that there was no significant IRC Section 382 limitation. The Company has not assessed whether any ownership changes have occurred since the completion of the 2006 analysis. As of September 30, 2013, the Company had research and development tax credit carryforwards for federal and state purposes of approximately $1.3 million and $815,000, respectively, which will begin to expire in 2018 for federal purposes and will carryforward indefinitely for state purposes. An updated analysis may be required at the time the Company begins utilizing any of its net operating losses to determine if there is an IRC Section 382 limitation.
Accounting for uncertainty in income taxes prescribes a recognition threshold and measurement attribute for the financial statement recognition and measurement of a tax position taken or expected to be taken in a tax return and provides guidance on derecognition, classification, interest and penalties, accounting in interim periods, disclosure, and transition. The Company has elected to classify interest and penalties as a component of its income tax provision. With respect to the liability for unrecognized tax benefits, including related estimates of penalties and interest, the Company recorded increases of $0 and $1,000 for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2013, respectively, and $2,000 and $4,000 for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2012, respectively.
For the three and nine months ended September 30, 2013, the Company recorded an income tax provision of $22,000 and benefit of $182,000, respectively, related to the current year tax provision. For the three and nine months ended September 30, 2012, the Company recorded an income tax provision of $34,000 and $97,000, respectively. During the nine months ended September 30, 2013, the Company reversed certain deferred tax liabilities associated with unrecognized tax benefits related to international operations due to expiring statutes and recognized tax benefits of $107,000 and recognized deferred tax assets related to certain indefinite lived assets (federal alternative minimum tax credits and California R&D credits) that were used to offset deferred tax liabilities related to indefinite-lived intangible assets of $107,000 resulting in an overall tax benefit of $214,000. Management does not expect to record additional significant tax benefits in the foreseeable future.
The tax expense differs from expense derived from statutory rate of 34% primarily due to the existence of valuation allowances against net deferred tax assets and current liabilities resulting from the estimated state income tax liabilities and federal alternative minimum tax liability. The income tax provision for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2013 was calculated using the discrete year-to-date method, which management determined to be more appropriate than the annual effective rate method which was used to calculate the income tax provision for the quarter ended March 31, 2013.
Recently enacted tax laws may also affect the tax provision on the Company’s financial statements. The state of California requires the use of a single sales factor apportionment formula for tax years beginning on or after January 1, 2013. During the nine months ended September 30, 2013, the Company’s state deferred tax assets were revalued to account for the change in the tax law; however, the Company records a full valuation allowance against the state deferred tax assets therefore the California apportionment mandate did not have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
The entire disclosure for income taxes. Disclosures may include net deferred tax liability or asset recognized in an enterprise's statement of financial position, net change during the year in the total valuation allowance, approximate tax effect of each type of temporary difference and carryforward that gives rise to a significant portion of deferred tax liabilities and deferred tax assets, utilization of a tax carryback, and tax uncertainties information.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/presentationRef