Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2011
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies [Abstract]  


Cash and Cash Equivalents

The Company considers all highly liquid investments with maturities of three months or less when purchased, as cash equivalents. Generally, any excess cash is invested in money market funds. Cash equivalents are carried at cost, which approximates fair market value.

Accounts Receivable

Trade accounts receivable are recorded at the invoiced amount and do not bear interest. The allowance for doubtful accounts is the Company’s best estimate of the amount of probable credit losses in its existing accounts receivable. The Company evaluates its allowance for doubtful accounts based upon its knowledge of customers and their compliance with credit terms. The evaluation process includes a review of customers’ accounts on a regular basis which incorporates input from sales, service, and finance personnel. The review process evaluates all account balances with amounts outstanding more than 90 days and other specific amounts for which information obtained indicates that the balance may be uncollectible. The allowance for doubtful accounts is adjusted based on such evaluation, with a corresponding provision included in general and administrative expenses. Account balances are charged off against the allowance when it is probable the receivable will not be recovered. The Company does not have any off-balance-sheet credit exposure related to its customers.


The Company values inventory at the lower of cost, determined using the first-in, first-out method, or market. The carrying value of inventory is evaluated periodically for excess quantities and obsolescence. Management evaluates quantities on hand, physical condition, and technical functionality as these characteristics may be impacted by anticipated customer demand for current products and new product introductions. The allowance is adjusted based on such evaluation, with a corresponding provision included in cost of revenue. Abnormal amounts of idle facility expenses, freight, handling costs and wasted material are recognized as current period charges and our allocation of fixed production overhead is based on the normal capacity of our production facilities.


Property, Plant and Equipment

Property, plant and equipment is stated at acquisition cost less accumulated depreciation. Maintenance and repairs are expensed as incurred. Upon sale or disposition of assets, any gain or loss is included in the consolidated statements of operations.

The cost of property, plant and equipment is depreciated using the straight-line method over the following estimated useful lives of the respective assets, except for leasehold improvements, which are depreciated over the lesser of the estimated useful lives of the respective assets or the related lease terms.




  30 years

Leasehold improvements

  3 to 5 years

Equipment and computers

  3 to 5 years

Furniture and fixtures

  5 years

Depreciation expense for the years ended December 31, 2011, 2010, and 2009 totaled approximately $565,000, $940,000, and $1,303,000, respectively.

Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets

Goodwill and other intangible assets with indefinite lives are not subject to amortization but are evaluated for impairment annually or whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the asset might be impaired. The Company operates in one operating segment and has one operating unit; therefore goodwill is tested for impairment at the consolidated level against the fair value of the Company. The fair value of a reporting unit refers to the amount at which the unit as a whole could be bought or sold in a current transaction between willing parties. Quoted market prices in active markets are the best evidence of fair value and are used as the basis for measurement, if available. Management assesses potential impairment on an annual basis on June 30 th and compares the Company’s market capitalization to its carrying amount, including goodwill. A significant decrease in the Company’s stock price could indicate a material impairment of goodwill which, after further analysis, could result in a material charge to operations. If goodwill is considered impaired, the impairment loss to be recognized is measured by the amount by which the carrying amount of the goodwill exceeds the implied fair value of that goodwill. Inherent in the Company’s fair value determinations are certain judgments and estimates, including projections of future cash flows, the discount rate reflecting the inherent risk in future cash flows, the interpretation of current economic indicators and market valuations, and strategic plans with regards to operations. A change in these underlying assumptions could cause a change in the results of the tests, which could cause the fair value of the reporting unit to be less than its respective carrying amount.

Costs incurred to acquire and successfully defend patents, and costs incurred to acquire trademarks and trade names are capitalized. Costs related to the internal development of technologies that are ultimately patented are expensed as incurred. Intangible assets, except those determined to have an indefinite life, are amortized using the straight-line method over management’s best estimate of the pattern of economic benefit over the estimated useful life of the assets. Intangible assets are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of the asset may not be recoverable.

Long-Lived Assets

The carrying values of long-lived assets, including intangible assets subject to amortization, are reviewed when indicators of impairment, such as reductions in demand or significant economic slowdowns, are present. Reviews are performed to determine whether carrying value of an asset is impaired based on comparisons to undiscounted expected future cash flows. If this comparison indicates that there is impairment, the impaired asset is written down to fair value, which is typically calculated using discounted expected future cash flows. Impairment is based on the excess of the carrying amount over the fair value of those assets.

Other Comprehensive (Loss) Income

Other comprehensive (loss) income encompasses the change in equity from transactions and other events and circumstances from non-owner sources and is included as a component of stockholders’ equity (deficit) but is excluded from net (loss) income. Accumulated other comprehensive gain (loss) consists of the effects of foreign currency translation adjustments and unrealized gains or losses on marketable securities classified as available for sale.


Foreign Currency Translation and Transactions

Transactions of the Company’s German, Spanish, Australian, and New Zealand subsidiaries are denominated in their local currencies. The results of operations and cash flows are translated at average exchange rates during the period, and assets and liabilities are translated at end-of-period exchange rates. Translation gains or losses are shown as a component of accumulated other comprehensive gain (loss) in stockholders’ equity (deficit). Gains and losses resulting from foreign currency transactions, which are denominated in a currency other than the entity’s functional currency, are included in the consolidated statements of operations.

Revenue Recognition

The Company’s products were sold exclusively through HSIC in North America from September 2006 through August 2010. Effective August 30, 2010, the Company’s products were sold domestically both directly to customers through its direct sales force and through non-exclusive distributors. Sales are recorded upon shipment and payment is generally due within 90 days or less. Internationally, the Company sells products through independent distributors, including HSIC. Revenue is recorded based on four basic criteria that must be met before revenue can be recognized: (1) persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists; (2) delivery has occurred and title and the risks and rewards of ownership have been transferred to the customer or services have been rendered; (3) the price is fixed or determinable; and (4) collectability is reasonably assured. Revenue is recorded for all sales upon shipment assuming all other revenue recognition criteria are met.

Sales of the Company’s laser systems include separate deliverables consisting of the product, disposables used with the laser systems, installation, and training. For these sales, effective January 1, 2011, the Company applies the relative selling price method, which requires that arrangement consideration be allocated at the inception of an arrangement to all deliverables using the relative selling price method. This requires the Company to use (estimated) selling prices of each of the deliverables in the total arrangement. The sum of those prices is then compared to the arrangement, and any difference is applied to the separate deliverable ratably. This method also establishes a selling price hierarchy for determining the selling price of a deliverable, which includes: (1) vendor-specific objective evidence (“VSOE”) if available, (2) third-party evidence if vendor-specific objective evidence is not available, and (3) estimated selling price if neither vendor-specific nor third-party evidence is available. VSOE is determined based on the value the Company sells the undelivered element to a customer as a stand-alone product. Revenue attributable to the undelivered elements is included in deferred revenue when the product is shipped and is recognized when the related service is performed. Disposables not shipped at time of sale and installation services are typically shipped or installed within 30 days. Training is included in deferred revenue when the product is shipped and is recognized when the related service is performed or upon expiration of time offered under the agreement, typically within six months from date of sale. The adoption of the relative selling price method does not significantly change the value of revenue recognized. Deferred revenue attributable to undelivered elements, which primarily consists of training, totaled $1.1 million and $616,000 as of December 31, 2011 and 2010, respectively.

Key judgments of the Company’s revenue recognition include the collectability of payment from the customer, the satisfaction of all elements of the arrangement having been delivered, and that no additional customer credits and discounts are needed. The Company evaluates the customer’s credit worthiness prior to the shipment of the product. Based on the assessment of the credit information available, the Company may determine the credit risk is higher than normally acceptable, and will either decline the purchase or defer the revenue until payment is reasonably assured. Future obligations required at the time of sale may also cause the Company to defer the revenue until the obligation is satisfied.

Although all sales are final, the Company accepts returns of products in certain, limited circumstances and records a provision for sales returns based on historical experience concurrent with the recognition of revenue. The sales returns allowance is recorded as a reduction of accounts receivable and revenue. As of December 31, 2011 and 2010, $110,000 was recorded as a reduction of accounts receivable for sales returns.

Extended warranty contracts, which are sold to non-distributor customers, are recorded as revenue on a straight-line basis over the period of the contracts, which is typically one year. Included in deferred revenue for each of the years ended December 31, 2011 and 2010, was $1.1 million, for extended warranty contracts. This is inclusive of an extended service contract commitment assumed as part of a settlement, of which $25,000 will not be recognized as revenue until 2013 and beyond.

For sales transactions involving used laser trade-ins, the Company recognizes revenue for the entire transaction when the cash consideration is in excess of 25% of the total transaction. The Company values used lasers received at their estimated fair market value at the date of receipt.


The Company recognizes revenue for royalties under licensing agreements for our patented technology when the product using our technology is sold. The Company estimates and recognizes the amount earned based on historical performance and current knowledge about the business operations of our licensees. Historically, the Company’s estimates have generally been consistent with amounts reported by the licensees. Licensing revenue related to exclusive licensing arrangements is recognized concurrent with the related exclusivity period and totaled $64,000, $145,000, and $99,000 for the years ended December 31, 2011, 2010, and 2009, respectively.

From time to time, the Company may offer sales incentives and promotions on its products. The cost of sales incentives are recorded at the date at which the related revenue is recognized as a reduction in revenue, increase in cost of goods sold or as a selling expense, as applicable, or later, in the case of incentives offered after the initial sale has occurred.

Provision for Warranty Expense

Waterlase systems sold domestically are covered by a warranty against defects in material and workmanship for a period of one year while the warranty period for Diode systems is up to two years from date of sale by the Company or the distributor to the end-user. Estimated warranty expenses are recorded as an accrued liability, with a corresponding provision to cost of revenue. This estimate is recognized concurrent with the recognition of revenue on the sale to the distributor or end-user. Warranty expenses expected to be incurred after one year from the time of sale to the distributor are classified as a long term warranty accrual. Waterlase systems sold internationally are generally covered by a warranty against defects in material and workmanship for a period of sixteen months while the warranty period for Diode systems is up to twenty eight months from the date of sale to the international distributor. The Company’s overall accrual is based on its historical experience and the expectation of future conditions. An increase in warranty claims or in the costs associated with servicing those claims would result in an increase in the accrual and a decrease in gross profit.

Changes in the initial product warranty accrual and the expenses incurred under our initial and extended warranties for the years ended December 31 were as follows (in thousands):


      September 30,       September 30,       September 30,  
    Years Ended December 31,  
    2011     2010     2009  

Initial warranty accrual, beginning balance

  $ 2,725     $ 2,235     $ 2,612  

Provision for estimated warranty cost

    1,586       3,126       2,820  

Warranty expenditures

    (2,093     (2,636     (3,197










Initial warranty accrual, ending balance

    2,218       2,725       2,235  

Total warranty accrual, long term

    —         424       448  










Total warranty accrual, current portion

  $ 2,218     $ 2,301     $ 1,787  










Shipping and Handling Costs and Revenues

Shipping and handling costs are expensed as incurred and are recorded as a component of cost of revenue. Charges to customers for shipping and handling are included as a component of revenue.

Advertising Costs

Advertising costs are expensed as incurred and totaled approximately $444,000, $610,000, and $267,000 for the years ended December 31, 2011, 2010, and 2009, respectively.

Engineering and Development

Engineering and development expenses are generally expensed as incurred and consist of engineering personnel salaries and benefits, prototype supplies, contract services and consulting fees related to product development.

Income Taxes

Differences between accounting for income taxes for financial statement purposes and accounting for tax return purposes are stated as deferred tax assets or deferred tax liabilities in the accompanying consolidated financial statements. The provision for income taxes represents the tax payable for the period and the change during the period in deferred tax assets and liabilities. The Company establishes a valuation allowance when it is more likely than not that the deferred tax assets will not be realized.


On January 1, 2007, the Company adopted the interpretations issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) which establishes a single model to address accounting for uncertain tax positions. The interpretations clarify the accounting for income taxes by prescribing a minimum recognition threshold a tax position is required to meet before being recognized in the financial statements and also provides guidance on de-recognition, measurement, classification, interest and penalties, accounting in interim periods, disclosure and transition.

Stock-Based Compensation

During the years ended December 31, 2011, 2010, and 2009, the Company recognized compensation cost related to stock options of $1.5 million, $727,000, and $1.4 million, respectively, based on the grant date fair value. The net impact to earnings for the years ended December 31, 2011, 2010, and 2009, was $(0.05), $(0.03) and $(0.06) per diluted share, respectively. The following table summarizes the income statement classification of compensation expense associated with share-based payments (in thousands):


      September 30,       September 30,       September 30,  
    Years Ended December 31,  
    2011     2010     2009  

Cost of revenue

  $ 175     $ 41     $ 137  

Sales and marketing

    463       193       397  

General and administrative

    751       407       664  

Engineering and development

    139       86       159  









    $ 1,528     $ 727     $ 1,357  










As of December 31, 2011 and 2010, the Company had $2.6 million and $1.6 million, respectively, of total unrecognized compensation cost, net of estimated forfeitures, related to unvested share-based compensation arrangements granted under our existing plans. The cost is expected to be recognized over a weighted average period of 1.1 years.

The Black-Scholes option valuation model is used in estimating the fair value of traded options. This option pricing model requires the Company to make several assumptions regarding the key variables used to calculate the fair value of its stock options. The risk-free interest rate used is based on the U.S. Treasury yield curve in effect for the expected lives of the options at their dates of grant. Since July 1, 2005, the Company has used a dividend yield of zero as it does not intend to pay cash dividends on its common stock in the foreseeable future. The most critical assumption used in calculating the fair value of stock options is the expected volatility of the Company’s common stock. Management believes that the historic volatility of the Company’s common stock is a reliable indicator of future volatility, and accordingly, a stock volatility factor based on the historical volatility of the Company’s common stock over a period of time is used in approximating the estimated lives of new stock options. The expected term is estimated by analyzing the Company’s historical share option exercise experience over a five year period. Compensation expense is recognized using the straight-line method for all stock-based awards. Compensation expense is recognized only for those options expected to vest, with forfeitures estimated at the date of grant based on historical experience and future expectations. Forfeitures are estimated at the time of the grant and revised as necessary in subsequent periods if actual forfeitures differ from those estimates.

The stock option fair values were estimated using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model with the following assumptions:


      September 30,       September 30,       September 30,  
    2011     2010     2009  

Expected term (years)

    4.15       4.54       4.97  


    105     91     84

Annual dividend per share

  $ 0.00     $ 0.00     $ 0.00  

Risk-free interest rate

    1.53     1.94     2.03

Net Loss Per Share—Basic and Diluted

Basic net income (loss) per share is computed by dividing income (loss) available to common stockholders by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding for the period. In computing diluted net income (loss) per share, the weighted average number of shares outstanding is adjusted to reflect the effect of potentially dilutive securities.

Outstanding stock options and warrants to purchase 4,626,000, 4,282,000, and 3,631,000 shares were not included in the calculation of diluted loss per share amounts for the years ended December 31, 2011, 2010, and 2009, respectively, as their effect would have been anti-dilutive.


Stock Dividends

The Board of Directors declared special 1% stock dividends during each of the four quarters of 2011. The stock dividend declared during the quarter ended March 31, 2011 was payable March 31, 2011 to shareholders of record on March 15, 2011; the stock dividend declared during the quarter ended June 30, 2011 was payable June 30, 2011 to shareholders of record on June 10, 2011; the stock dividend declared during the quarter ended September 30, 2011 was payable September 15, 2011 to shareholders of record on August 29, 2011; and the stock dividend declared during the quarter ended December 31, 2011 was payable on December 5, 2011 to stockholders of record on November 25, 2011. The number of shares issued as part of these quarterly stock dividends totaled 1,165,715 shares. The Board of Directors deems these four dividends to be special dividends and there is no assurance, with respect to amount or frequency, that any stock dividend will be declared again in the future. All stock information presented, other than that related to stock options and warrants, has been adjusted to reflect the effects of the stock dividends.

In March 2012, the Board of Directors adopted a 2% annual stock dividend policy for 2012 and declared a one-half percent stock dividend (the “March Stock Dividend”) payable March 30, 2012 to stockholders of record on March 15, 2012.

Stock Repurchase Program

On August 10, 2011, the Company announced that its Board of Directors authorized a stock repurchase program, pursuant to which the Company may repurchase up to an aggregate of 2,000,000 shares of the Company’s outstanding common stock. The stock repurchase program became effective on August 12, 2011. The Company expects to fund the stock repurchase program with existing cash and cash equivalents on hand. Any shares repurchased will be retired and shall resume the status of authorized and unissued shares. Repurchases of the Company’s common stock may be made from time to time through a variety of methods, including open market purchases, privately negotiated transactions or block transactions. The Company has no obligation to repurchase shares under the stock repurchase program, and the timing, actual number and value of the shares that are repurchased will be at the discretion of the Company’s management and will depend upon a number of considerations, including the trading price of the Company’s common stock, general market conditions, applicable legal requirements and other factors. The stock repurchase program will expire on August 12, 2013, unless the program is completed sooner, suspended, terminated, or otherwise extended. During the quarter ended December 31, 2011, the Company repurchased 100,500 shares of the Company’s common stock at an average price of $2.68 per share pursuant to the stock repurchase program.

Recent Accounting Pronouncements

Changes to U.S. GAAP are established by the FASB in the form of accounting standards updates (“ASU’s”) to the FASB’s Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”).

The Company considers the applicability and impact of all ASU’s. ASU’s not listed below were assessed and determined to not be applicable or are expected to have minimal impact on our consolidated financial position and results of operations.

Newly Adopted Accounting Standards

In October 2009, the FASB issued an update to existing guidance on accounting for arrangements with multiple deliverables. This update allows companies to allocate consideration received for qualified separate deliverables using estimated selling price for both delivered and undelivered items when vendor-specific objective evidence or third-party evidence is unavailable. Additional disclosures discussing the nature of multiple element arrangements, the types of deliverables under the arrangements, the general timing of their delivery and significant factors and estimates used to determine estimated selling prices is required. This guidance is effective prospectively for interim and annual periods ending after June 15, 2010. The Company adopted this guidance effective January 1, 2011. The adoption did not have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.

In December 2010, the FASB issued an update to existing guidance on the calculation of impairment of goodwill. This update modifies Step 1 of the goodwill impairment test for reporting units with zero or negative carrying amounts. For these reporting units, an entity is required to perform Step 2 of the goodwill impairment test if it is more likely than not that a goodwill impairment exists. The Company adopted this guidance on January 1, 2011, and will evaluate the impact, if any, on its consolidated financial statements if events occur or circumstances change that would more likely than not reduce the fair value of the Company or its assets below their carrying amounts. No events have occurred since June 30, 2011, the Company’s testing date, that would trigger further impairment testing of goodwill.

Accounting Standards not yet Adopted

In September 2011, the FASB issued guidance for the impairment testing of goodwill. The guidance permits an entity to first assess qualitative factors to determine whether it is more-likely-than-not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount as a basis for determining whether it is necessary to perform the two-step goodwill impairment test. This guidance is effective for annual and interim goodwill impairment tests performed for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2011, but may be adopted early. Management believes that the adoption of this guidance will not have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.

In June 2011, the FASB updated the accounting guidance relating to presentation of comprehensive income. This guidance requires companies to present total comprehensive income, the components of net income, and the components of other comprehensive income (“OCI”) either in a single continuous statement of comprehensive income or in two, but consecutive, statements. Additionally, companies are required to present on the face of the consolidated financial statements the reclassification adjustments that are reclassified from OCI to net income, where the components of net income and the components of OCI are presented. This guidance, which is not expected to have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial position or results of operations is effective for fiscal years and interim periods within those years beginning after December 15, 2011, may be adopted early, and requires retrospective application to all periods presented.